We use commands to execute operations that have side effects. Like messages, commands are also represented as data. Think of them as data structures that store what needs to happen along with what data will be needed. We then hand the command over to the Elm runtime. The runtime will execute it and notify our application with a result. That sounds really vague, doesn’t it? Let’s look at an example for generating random numbers to make things a bit more concrete.
Generating Random Numbers
There are two main approaches to generating random numbers: True Random Number Generators (TRNGs) and Pseudo-Random Number Generators (PRNGs). TRNGs generate numbers from truly random physical phenomena, for example the little variations in someone’s mouse movements or the point in time at which a radioactive material decays or the atmospheric noise picked up by a radio.
Due to their reliance on a physical phenomena, TRNGs take considerably longer time to generate random numbers. Therefore, most computer programs that need random numbers quickly tend to rely on PRNGs which are much more efficient than TRNGs. Despite their efficiency, PRNGs are not suitable for applications that need truly unpredictable random numbers, such as encryption key generators.
PRNGs take an initial value (called seed) and apply an algorithm to generate a seemingly random number. The modern algorithms used by PRNGs are so good that the numbers generated by them look quite random.
However, if we use the same initial seed multiple times we will get the exact same number each time.
Generating Random Numbers without Side Effects
Let’s explore this behavior of PRNGs further by writing some Elm code in
elm-repl. We’ll start by generating an initial seed.
initialSeed function from the
Random module takes an integer and returns a seed. We randomly picked the number
31415 as an input. Here’s what the
initialSeed function’s type signature looks like:
Seed type is defined in the
Random module like this:
We haven’t seen a complicated union type like this before. The
Seed type uses the same name for type and data constructors, which is perfectly valid in Elm. If we want to create a seed directly without using the
initialSeed function we need to pass a record that contains values for
range properties. The process of creating a new seed like this is fairly complex. That’s why the
Random module provides the
initialSeed function which hides all of that complexity from us.
The good news is, we won’t need to create a seed directly without using the
initialSeed function or understand how the
Seed type works to be able to generate random numbers in Elm. Nonetheless, I wanted to cover it briefly here so that you can make sense of the output generated by the
initialSeed function we saw earlier.
Now that we have an initial seed, we can use the
Random.step function to generate a random value.
The output from that expression is hard to read. Here’s how it looks after some formatting:
The above output is a tuple. The first element is a random number and the second element is the seed we can use to generate the next random number. As mentioned earlier, we need to provide a different seed to the
step function each time we want to generate a new random number. Otherwise, we keep getting the same number over and over again. That’s why the
step function returns a new seed in addition to a random number.
step function takes a random number generator and a seed as inputs. Here’s what its type signature looks like:
Random.int 0 100 expression we typed into the repl earlier creates a generator that produces random 32-bit integers between
It’s important to understand that the
Random.int function itself doesn’t generate a random number. It returns a generator which can be passed to other functions such as
step that will in turn ask that generator to produce random numbers. Think of a generator as a recipe for generating certain types of random values. So
Random.int 0 100 describes how to create a recipe for generating integers between
Random.float 0 1 describes how to create a recipe for generating floating-point numbers between
Next, we’ll capture the new seed returned by the
step function so that we can use it to generate a different random number.
Now, we’re ready to generate a new random number.
Here’s the output after some formatting:
This time we got
26 as the new number. Last time it was
48. The numbers inside the
state property also changed. If those numbers didn’t change we would get the same number again and again. What this means is that the
Random.step function is pure and doesn’t generate any side effects. It returns the exact same output given the same input.
Generating Random Numbers with Side Effects
This process of manually providing seed values, as we’ve done so far, has some drawbacks. First, it is cumbersome. Second, it makes the random number sequence predictable. Elm provides a way to get rid of these hurdles by picking an unpredictable initial seed value by default. It does so by using the current time generated by a real-time clock embedded in our computers to produce seed values.
As soon as we give Elm the responsibility of picking the initial seed value, the random number generation process causes side effects. To get the initial seed value, it has to now interact with the real-time clock, which is part of the outside world. This is where commands come in.
To generate random numbers with side effects we need to follow the Elm Architecture. It’s hard to write a full fledged program in repl, so we’ll create a new file called
RandomNumber.elm in the
The first thing we need to define is our model. Add the following code to
All we need to keep track of here is a number. The above model looks exactly like the one we defined for the counter app in Model View Update - Part 1 section. Next, we need to create an initial model. Add the following code to the bottom of
When commands are involved, the code for initializing our model becomes a little more complex. In the counter app, all we had to do was return an integer as shown below.
Let’s go through each change one by one.
Change #1: The function name changed from
init since we’re doing more than just initializing a model.
Change #2: The
init function now returns a tuple. The first element represents the model and the second element represents commands. In addition to providing an initial value for our model, we need to tell the Elm runtime what commands to run when it loads our app. Since we don’t want to run any commands in the beginning, we simply return
Cmd type is defined in the
Platform.Cmd module and it represents commands in Elm.
none is a constant also defined in the
Platform.Cmd module. It returns an empty list of commands.
Let’s say we need to restore the state of our app when it’s launched from a remote server which lies outside the boundary of our app. Therefore, we need to rely on the Elm runtime to retrieve the state by returning a command from the
Change #3: The type annotation has also changed to
init : ( Model, Cmd msg ). We already know what
Cmd msg means a command that will
notify our app with results by sending messages of type
msg is just a type variable, so it doesn’t represent a concrete type. Later in this section, we’ll define a type called
Msg to make it clear which messages can be sent to our app.
Next, we need to present our initial model to the user. Add the following code to the bottom of
Our view is very simple. All we’re displaying is a button and the string representation of a random number. We also need to import the
Html module in
Application Entry Point
To display the view, we need to define an entry point to our app. Add the following code to the bottom of
With the introduction of commands, the
main function also became slightly more complex. Here’s how the
main function looked in the counter app:
We’re now using the
program function defined in the
Html module instead of
beginnerProgram to wire everything up.
program takes a record with four properties. We’re already familiar with
init property represents the initial model and a list of commands to run when the app is launched.
subscriptions represents things we want to listen to, for example web socket messages and location changes. By assigning
(\_ -> Sub.none), we let the Elm runtime know that we aren’t interested in listening to anything right now. We’ll cover subscriptions in detail later in this chapter.
The only thing remaining to define is the
update function. Add the following code right above the
main function in
update function simply returns the output from the
init function. We’ll expand it to be more meaningful in a bit. Finally, we’re ready to display our view. Run
elm-reactor from the
beginning-elm directory in terminal if it’s not running already, and go to this URL in your browser:
http://localhost:8000/elm-examples/RandomNumber.elm. You should see a view that looks like this:
Right now, the Generate Random Number button doesn’t do anything. Let’s define a message that will get triggered when that button is clicked. Add the following type definition right above the
update function in
Next, we need to modify the
update function so that it can respond to the
The type annotation for the
update function now uses the
Msg type instead of
msg, so don’t forget to make that change. If you don’t remember the difference between the
msg type variable and the
Msg union type, you might want to refresh your memory by reading the Model View Update - Part 1 section again.
update function now returns a tuple containing a model and commands instead of just the model. Notice how the
initialModel in the previous sections) functions tend to have the same return types. Here’s the
update function from the counter app for comparison:
Let’s understand what’s going on in the body of the new
update function. When the
GenerateRandomNumber message is received, we return an unmodified model and a command for generating a random number. The command is generated by using the
generate function defined in the
In Elm, we don’t tend to create commands directly through the use of some constructor function. Instead, we rely on functions like
generate. Here’s another example: let’s say we want to create a command that sends an HTTP request to a remote server. We can use the
Http.send function to generate that command. We just look for an appropriate function in a module and use it to create a command.
generate tries to achieve the same goal as the
step function — generate a random number. The way it goes about achieving that goal, however, is very different.
step uses a generator and a seed to return a random number instantaneously.
generate on the other hand, takes a generator and tells the Elm runtime to run that generator. It also gives the runtime the name of the message the runtime should send when the number is ready. We haven’t defined the
NewRandomNumber message yet; we’ll do that soon.
Why do we have to give the
generate function a message? Why can’t it just return a random number immediately like the
step function did? It’s due to
the fact that we aren’t manually providing an initial seed value anymore. We need to generate the seed by using our computer’s clock, which produces side effects.
To run things that generate side effects, Elm requires us to create a command along with any pertinent information that command needs. We then hand that command over to the runtime. The runtime executes the command and notifies our application with the result by sending the message included in the command.
Here’s what the
generate function’s type signature looks like:
The first argument is a function that takes a value and wraps it in a message. In our case, that’s
NewRandomNumber. Remember, messages that take an argument are essentially functions. If you check the type of
NewRandomNumber in repl, you will see that it takes an integer and returns a message of type
The second argument to the
generate function is a random number generator. In our case, it’s
Random.int, which takes the range as inputs (e.g.,
0 100). Lastly, the
generate function returns a command that encapsulates the message and the generator. The next step is to add
NewRandomNumber to the
Msg type and also handle it in the
update function as shown below.
NewRandomNumber message is received, we simply return the number in payload as our model and an empty list of commands. We also replaced
msg with the
Msg type in the
update function’s type annotation. Let’s import the
Random modules next and add an
onClick attribute to our button so that the
GenerateRandomNumber message gets triggered when the button is clicked.
Don’t forget to replace
msg with the
Msg type in the
view function’s type annotation. We actually need to do that replacement in the
main functions as well.
Now we’re ready to test our program. Refresh the page at
http://localhost:8000/elm-examples/RandomNumber.elm and you should be able to generate random numbers now.
In this section, we learned how to use commands to execute operations that cause side effects. Here is how the Elm Architecture looks with the introduction of commands:
The interaction between the Elm runtime and our code has also become a bit more complex now that we are using commands. The sequence diagram below shows that interaction.
Commands are an important concept in Elm. We need to understand them well in order to be able to build complex applications in Elm. In chapter 6, we’ll continue to explore how commands can help us execute one of the most common operations performed in web apps — sending and receiving data from an HTTP server — without sacrificing our application code’s purity.
Here is the entire code from